Extended and Extensive

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 11:40 AM

Once again adjective forms of the same word cause confusion. The verb ‘to extend’ means to spread, to prolong or to enlarge. Therefore, if something is extended, it is spread or prolonged.


For example:

Bob asked the professor if the deadline for his paper could be  
extended.
          Extended family is traditionally the core structure of Thai
society.
          If you pay your bills on time, your credits will be extended.

         
Extended can also mean longer or wider than expected.


For example:

          We had extended conversation about the third quarter budget
          review.
          The new CD contains the extended version of our old   
          favourites.
          South Park features an extended episode for Christmas.    

On the other hand, extensive means large in amount or scale.
    

For example:

The fire last night has caused extensive damage.
          This store offers an extensive range of variety of merchandise.


Notes:

Extended (adj.)     spread, longer and wider than expected
Extensive (adj.)     large in amount or scale


Exercise: Extended or Extensive
Directions:  Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.


  1. The sky train will be ________ to the new airport.
  2. London underground network is ________. It covers a huge area of Greater London.
  3. John has an ________ collection of rare DVD. He owns an ________ version of the Titanic, which is almost four hours long.
  4. Mary’s long hair is not real. She got it ________ last week.
  5. All newspapers run an ________ cover of the riot.
  6. We can take a long vacation. I have got an ________ holiday leave from work.
  7. His ________ pool of knowledge is depthless.
  8. Due to overwhelming interests received, the discussion session has been ________ to last a whole afternoon.

Gather and Collect

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 11:39 AM

Gather and Collect
There are several verbs that show the action of bringing something together. To use them correctly, one must learn the difference in the meaning of each word.

          ‘To gather’ can be either transitive or intransitive. As an intransitive verb, it means to come together in one place.


For example:

We had a Thai-styled dinner, with the whole family gathering around in a circle.
Everyone in the office gathered in the conference room to hear his speech.
Please gather around over here before we board the bus.


          ‘To gather’ can also mean to collect something from a wide area or to bring something together.


For example:

          The workmen are gathering strawberries for the delivery.
          The children went off to gather some flowers in the wood.
          He gathered all his strength before aiming at the target.
She quickly gathered her clothes which were scattered on the floor.


‘To collect’ has similar meaning to the verb ‘to gather’. It can mean 1) to come together or to assemble and 2) to bring something together.


For example:
         
          The crowd soon collect at the scene.
His job is to collect the empty glasses and dirty dishes from the dinning room.
The workmen are collecting strawberries for the delivery.
          The children went off to collect some flowers in the wood.
         

          We also use ‘to collect’ in the sense of obtaining specimens of something as a hobby.


For example:

          He used to collect matchboxes and beer cans.
The children collect stamps and exchange ones they don’t like with other kids.

Hanged and Hung

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 11:25 AM

Hanged and Hung


Hanged and hung are both past participle forms of the verb to hang. However, they have different meanings. This is not the case of American and British usage.
The past and past participle form of the verb to hang is hung (hang-hung-hung). One meaning is to attach something with a rope or to stick something, let's say, on a wall.


For example:

The pictures of their ancestors are hung on the wall.
Please hang up the towel so that they dry properly.
This morning, you hung your wet socks in the bathroom.
The coats are hung on the hook on the door.

We use hanged as past and past participle of to hang when it means to kill someone by tying a rope around the neck of the person.

For example:

Up to the earlier the twentieth century, thieves had been hanged.
He hanged himself last night after his wife left him.
Witches in the medieval period were either burnt or hanged.

Note:

Hang--hanged--hanged   = to kill someone by hanging        
Hang--hung--hung           = to attach something and other meanings


Exercise: Hanged and Hung
Directions: Complete the sentences with the words that best fit the context. Make sure you use the correct forms of the verbs.

1. I feel so embarrassed that I will go home and _______ myself under the windowpane.
2. Edith _______ up the Christmas lights on the tree.
3. Her son likes the angel _______ on the window.
4. In the Wild West, cattle thieves used to be _______.
5. You can _______ your coat on the hook by the door.
6. _______ was a legal form of punishment in many states throughout America.
7. Why don’t you _______ your laundry in front of the heater so that your clothes dry more quickly?
8. Let me be _______ if I ever lied to you.


Hope and Wish

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 11:09 AM


Hope and Wish


Hope and wish are used to express your expectation. Their meanings and usage are slightly different. When you want something, which is possible or probable to happen, we use hope.

For example:

I hope I will get a good job after I graduate.
She hopes her father gets better soon.
We all hope that our school team will win the game.
They hope the test results won't be too bad.

We use wish with something which is not true. We would like something to happen but it is rather unlikely that it will be so. Since it is not true, we use past tense or more past with wish.

For example:

I wish I had an umbrella. If I did, I wouldn't get wet. (I don't have an umbrella with me right now).
I wish I knew that you were coming. I would have prepared more food. (I don't know you were coming).
I wish I were free. I would like to go with you. (I'm not free; therefore, I can't go).
He wishes he could take back what he had said. (It's impossible to turn back time).
We wish we wouldn't have to work on Saturdays. (But we have to).

* Like in untrue conditions, we use ‘were’ with every subject.


Note:
Hope   = possible to happen (used with normal tenses
               depending on the time frame)
Wish    = unlikely to happen (used with past tense or more
               past)


Exercise: Hope and Wish
Directions: Complete the sentences with the appropriate word.

1. I _______ today were Friday.
2. We _______ we could afford a vacation abroad.
3. I _______ that one day you will understand.
4. He _______ he had more time for his daughter.
5. We _______ that Jane will do well in her exams.
6. We all _______ we didn’t have to work hard.
7. I _______ I will see you soon.
8. I _______ I could be there right now.

Lie, Lie and Lay

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 10:57 AM

Lie, Lie and Lay


Learning three forms of a verb is challenging even for a native speaker, let alone words that look and sound similar. We often get to lie and to lay mixed up with each other because the past form of the verb to lie is 'lay' which is the same as the base form of the verb to lay.

    
      To lie means to put your body in a flat or a resting position. The past form (Verb 2) is lay and past participle (Verb 3) is lain. It is an intransitive verb. An intransitive verb doesn't need an object.


For example:
Tom usually lies in bed all morning on Sundays.
His body lies on the ground next to his wife.
He lay on the grass enjoying the sunshine. (past tense)
The book lay open on her table.
Julia has lain in bed all day. (present perfect tense)


To lay means to put. The past form is laid; and the past participle, laid. To lay is a transitive verb. It needs an object. You need to lay something.
For example:
She lays his book on the table.
He laid his hand on my shoulder. (past tense)
They have just laid the carpet on the floor. (present perfect)


Another verb that makes this pair even more confusing (or is it confused?) is to lie. To lie means not to tell the truth. The past form is lied and the past participle is lied. It is an intransitive verb.


For example:
Women above the age of 25 start to lie about their age.
Everyone has to lie sometimes. Some of the lies are called white lies because we lie in order not to hurt other people's feelings.
Bob lied to the police about his car.



Note
lie
lay
lie
lay
laid
lied
lain
laid
lied
(intransitive verb)
(transitive verb)
(intransitive verb)
= to stay flat on the surface
= to put = to tell a lie


Exercise: Lie/ lie/ lay
Directions: Choose the correct verbs to fill in the sentences. Make sure that you use the right tenses.

1. Nobody will trust you if you _______ often.
2. He fell in love with her the moment he _______ his eyes upon her.
3. I have a headache and need to _______ down for a moment.
4. She is _______ awake in bed.
5. Wet cement was _______ on the road.
6. It's not a good idea to _______ to your mother. She always knows.
7. Books _______ around on the floor.
8. _______ your sweater on the table and let it dry.



Answers:
1. Nobody will trust you if you lie often.
        (not tell the truth, present tense)
2. He fell in love with her the moment he laid his
        eyes upon her.
        (put, past tense)
3. I have a headache and need to lie down for a
        moment.
        (stay flat, present tense)
4. She is lying awake in bed.
        (stay flat, present continuous tense)
5. Wet cement was laid on the road.
        (put, past participle in passive voice)
6. It's not a good idea to lie to your mother. She
        always knows.
        (not tell the truth, present tense)
7. Books lie around on the floor.
        (stay flat, present tense)
8. Lay your sweater on the table and let it dry.
        (put, present tense imperative)






Comfortable and Convenient

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 9:35 AM


Thai students usually get ‘convenient and comfortable’ mixed up. They have similar meanings.

Comfortable means giving comfort or ease. It is used to describe something relaxing. The noun of ‘comfortable’ is comfort.

The new sofa is comfortable.
Staying in a hotel is sometimes more comfortable than staying with a relative. (It can also be convenient.)
I don’t need to move. I’m quite comfortable here.
Most people want to be rich and dream of a comfortable life. (comfortable = free from worrries)

Something that is convenient makes your tasks or life easier. It facilitates your action. It saves time and effort. The noun is convenience.

Mobile phones make life more convenient. (not comfortable)
It’s convenient to live in a city because everything is within reach.
It’s not convenient for him to come all the way over here.

Note:
Comfortable (adj.)    = giving comfort, relaxing
Convenient (adj.)     = causing no trouble, saving time and effort

Phrasal Verbs

Posted by Jaochainoi 7 | 1:02 AM

    Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and an adverb or a proposition, or both. When the verbs take on different adverbs or preposition, they have different meanings. Some of the phrasal verbs are intransitive verbs; that is, they don’t need an object. Phrasal verbs are also called two-word or three-word verbs. Let’s have a look at the examples of phrasal verbs below:

    Simple verbs like ‘to get’ when taking different adverbs and/or prepositions have different meanings.

    For example:
 
    Get along with           go together with, be friends with
    He doesn’t get along with his brother.
    Red meat and white wine don’t really get along, but some people like to have them together.

    Get back                    to return from some place or to receive again
    When will you get back from Hawaii?
    I have to get my notebook back from Jack. He has had it for too long.

    Get back at                to take revenge
    She said mean things just to get back at him for having hurt her feelings.

    Get in or into               to enter a car or arrive
    Get in the car. I will give you a ride home.
    They didn’t get in until late last night.

    Get on                         to enter a bus, train or plane, etc. and to get along
    Jane gets on the sky-train at Nana station.

    Get off                         to leave a car, bus or plane, etc.
    Ken gets off the bus at the station.

    Get rid of                      to eliminate to make something disappear
    Please get rid of the mess in your room before dinner.
    I can’t get rid of him. He follows me everywhere I go.

    Get over                      to recover from an illness or sadness
    I hope you get over your flu soon.

    Get up                          to get our of bed
    Children get up especially early on weekends to watch their favorite cartoon program on TV.

    Another example would be the verb ‘to take’. There are various prepositions and adverbs used with the verb.


    For example:
 
    Take care of                 to care for
    Good children take care of their parents when they are old.

    Take off                         to leave, to remove your clothes
    The plane had already taken off when Henry arrived at the airport.
    You have to take off your shoes before entering a monastery.

    Take over                       to take control
    Many small companies are taken over or go bankrupt during economic crises.

    Take out                          to remove
    Cindy took out the old curtains and replaced them with new ones


    To learn the phrasal verbs, you have to look them up in a dictionary. You can also try to memorize them; however, that could be difficult. Well, good luck.